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    Title:

    Laser Safety

    Publication date:

    5/16/2018

    Effective date:

    5/16/2018

    BRIEF

    Policy Summary

    The Berkeley Lab Laser Safety Program is designed to provide protection to personnel from exposure to Class 3B and 4 laser radiation. This is accomplished by:

    • Properly classifying lasers.
    • Evaluating the laser hazard and implementing appropriate engineered and administrative controls.
    • Recommending laser eyewear.
    • Providing laser user training.

    Who Should Read This Policy

    Berkeley Lab employees, affiliates, visitors, and subcontractors who:

    • Will purchase or bring a laser device for use at Berkeley Lab.
    • Intend to use Class 3B or Class 4 lasers or laser systems.
    • Perform service or open-beam alignment on Class 1 products containing a Class 3B or Class 4 laser.

    To Read the Full Policy, Go To:

    The POLICY tab on this wiki page

    Contact Information

    Laser Safety Officer

    Radiation Protection Group

    Environment/Health/Safety Division


    Title:

    Laser Safety

    Publication date:

    5/16/2018

    Effective date:

    5/16/2018

    POLICY

    A. Purpose

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) Laser Safety Program is designed to provide protection to personnel from exposure to Class 3B and 4 laser radiation. This is accomplished by:

    • Properly classifying lasers.
    • Evaluating the laser hazard and implementing appropriate engineered and administrative controls.
    • Recommending laser eyewear.
    • Providing laser user training.

    B. Persons Affected

    Berkeley Lab employees, affiliates, visitors, and subcontractors who:

    • Will purchase or bring a laser device for use at Berkeley Lab.
    • Intend to use Class 3B or Class 4 lasers or laser systems.
    • Perform service or open-beam alignment on Class 1 products containing a Class 3B or Class 4 laser.

    C. Exceptions

    None

    D. Policy Statement

    1. Persons using or planning to use laser devices should review Work Process A, Laser Safety Process and Laser Safety Flowchart, and Work Process B, General Laser Requirements, of the Berkeley Lab Health and Safety Manual (PUB-3000), Chapter 16, Laser Safety.
    2. If a laser will be purchased, the Berkeley Lab Laser Safety Officer (LSO) must review the purchase, installation, and use (see Work Process C, Procurement Requirements).
    3. Class 1, 2, 3A, 3R, 1M, or 2M lasers may be used as intended when conditions in Work Process F, Use of Class 1, 1M, 2, 2M, and 3R Lasers or Laser Systems, are satisfied.
    4. Users of Class 3B and 4 lasers must pass medical surveillance requirements (see Work Process D, Medical Exam Requirements).
    5. Users of Class 3B and 4 lasers must pass training requirements (see Work Process E, Training Requirements).
    6. A Work Planning and Control (WPC) Activity must cover installation and use of Class 3B and 4 lasers, and the Activity must be approved by the LSO (see Work Process G, Use of Class 3B and Class 4 Lasers and Laser Systems).
    7. Control measures must be implemented for Class 3B and 4 (see Work Process G, Use of Class 3B and Class 4 Lasers and Laser Systems):
      • Access controls.
      • Beam controls.
      • Signs and postings.
      • Laser eyewear.
      • User authorization.
    8. Any near miss, exposure, or injury incidents should be reported and investigated (see Work Process H.3, Suspected Laser Injury).

    E. Roles and Responsibilities

    Managers, supervisors, and employees have the responsibility to adhere to the provisions of this policy.

    Role

    Responsibility

    Activity Lead

    1. Must protect staff, other workers, the public, and the environment.

    • Implement the institution's accident response plan, including notification of the LSO, immediately after an accident or suspected exposure resulting from a laser operation.
    • Assist the employee involved in a laser accident in obtaining appropriate medical attention.
    • Ensure that access-door interlock devices are functioning properly where applicable.
    • Ensure that all visitors receive a site/experimental hazard orientation as part of any laser-use area tour when lasers are in use.
    • Require, make available, and verify the use of personal protective equipment.


    2. Must integrate environment, safety, and health (ES&H) into all work activities.

    • Prepares a Work Planning and Control (WPC) Activity for a laser operation and ensures that the provisions of the activity are properly implemented and diligently followed by the laser users.
    • Ensures that laser operation is permitted only after the LSO has evaluated and approved the adequate control measures.
    • Ensures that all laser users have read and accepted the WPC Activity.
    • Ensures that all laser users receive adequate and appropriate laser safety training.
    • Develops, provides, and documents on-the-job training (OJT) for personnel in all procedures and techniques required for the safe use of specific lasers and optical systems in their laboratories.
    • Ensures that the laser baseline eye examinations (EHS0288) are completed, as outlined in the medical surveillance section of this chapter.
    • Ensures the laser inventory is accurate in both the Laser Management System (LMS) and in the WPC Activity.


    3. Must actively communicate ES&H and Integrated Safety Management issues.

    • Notifies the LSO of any laser-related accidents or suspected exposures.
    • Ensures the LSO is notified of proposed laser acquisitions or changes to the Laser Controlled Area configuration that affect safety.

    Laser Users

    1. Must protect themselves, other workers, the public, and the environment.

    • Conduct their work activities safely.
    • Know how to respond in case of an emergency.
    • Are responsible for stopping unsafe work activities (see the Stop Work Policy in the Berkeley Lab Requirements and Policies Manual).
    • Report immediately any suspected laser accidents, injuries, or eye exposures to the laser supervisor, Health Services, and the Laser Safety Officer (LSO).
    • Refer any questions or concerns to the LSO or the Laser Safety Committee.


    2. Must integrate ES&H into all work activities.

    • Must not energize or work with a laser/laser system unless authorized through WPC.
    • Must read, understand, accept, and follow all controls in the WPC Activity.
    • Complete appropriate training (such as EHS302) before operating any laser/laser system unsupervised.
    • Receive appropriate OJT prior to unsupervised laser use.
    • Receive a baseline eye examination as a part of the medical surveillance (EHS0288), when applicable.
    • Complete refresher training when applicable.

    3. Must actively communicate ES&H and Integrated Safety Management issues.
    • Promptly report any malfunctions and problems that may have an impact on safety.

    Laser Safety Officer (LSO)

    1. Oversees and maintains the Berkeley Lab Laser Safety Program.

    • Establishes and maintains adequate policies and procedures for the control of laser hazards that comply with applicable regulations.
    • Monitors and enforces compliance with required standards and regulations.
    • Resolves conflicts between ANSI Z136.1 and regulations in other standards or guidance documents regarding lasers.
    • Monitors the LMS.
    • Maintains laser safety records.
    • Assists regulatory agency inspectors in their review of the Laser Safety Program or investigation of an incident, and ensures that corrective action is taken, where required.
    • Suspends, restricts, or terminates the operation of lasers or laser systems if laser hazard controls are deemed inadequate.
    • Works with Health Services to develop and maintain the Medical Surveillance Program.
    • Develops a plan to respond to and investigate incidents of actual or suspected laser beam exposure.


    2. Integrates ES&H into all work activities.

    • Evaluates the hazards of laser work, including establishment of a nominal hazard zone.
    • Evaluates and approves all Class 3B and 4 lasers and laser systems installations, operations, and hazard-mitigating control measures, including alignment procedures and adequate consideration of safety from non-beam hazards.
    • Develops and reviews substitute or alternate control measures when the primary ones are infeasible or impractical, as well as avoids unnecessary or duplicate controls.
    • Performs and documents a laser-safety assessment of all Class 3B or Class 4 lasers used in the WPC Activity. The assessment is documented using the Laser Operations Inspection Form or a similar process.
    • Classifies lasers, verifies laser classifications, and re-classifies lasers and laser systems after modification, based on the maximum output power or radiant energy available for the intended use.
    • Provides calculations of laser eye hazard parameters (e.g., maximum permissible exposure and optical density) that will ensure eye protection. Advises on appropriate laser eye protection, such as full protection or alignment eyewear where applicable.
    • Recommends or approves protective equipment, such as clothing, barriers, and screens, that may be required to ensure personnel safety.
    • Considers alternative control measures for the hearing and visually impaired when needed.
    • Ensures laser-safety training is provided for Class 3B and Class 4 laser users through class lectures, online training, or other methods.
    • Assists in identifying non-beam hazards.
    • Provides appropriately worded signs and labels.


    3. The LSO may delegate the duties listed above to a Deputy LSO or another responsible person.

    F. Definitions/Acronyms

    Term

    Definition

    Class 1 Laser

    Poses no threat of biological damage.

    Class 1M

    May pose a threat if viewed with optical devices.

    Class 2

    Visible (0.4 to 0.7 μm) output, eye protection is normally afforded by aversion response.

    Class 2M

    Visible (0.4 to 0.7 μm) output, may pose a threat if viewed with optical devices.

    Class 3

    Medium-powered lasers — may be hazardous under direct or specular viewing, not normally a diffuse reflection or fire hazard.

    Class 3R

    Has potential hazards under some direct or specular viewing conditions.

    Class 3B

    Can cause biological damage to the eyes.

    Class 4

    High-powered lasers — direct exposure to primary beam, specular reflections, and diffuse reflections can cause biological damage to the eyes or skin. Laser beam may have potential to generate a fire hazard. Laser beam may generate air contaminants.

    Acronym

    Term

    LSO

    Laser Safety Officer

    OJT

    On-the-job training

    WPC

    Work Planning and Control


    G. Recordkeeping Requirements

    • WPC Activity
    • Eye exam
    • Training records
    • Laser inventory
    • Laser control evaluation

    H. Implementing Documents

    Document number

    PUB-3000 reference

    Title

    Type

    07.07.018.001

    Chapter 16

    Program

    07.07.018.002

    Ch. 16, Work Process A

    Process

    07.07.018.003

    Ch. 16, Work Process B

    General Laser Safety Program Requirements

    Process

    07.07.018.004

    Ch. 16, Work Process C

    Process

    07.07.018.005

    Ch. 16, Work Process D

    Process

    07.07.018.006

    Ch. 16, Work Process E

    Process

    07.07.018.007

    Ch. 16, Work Process F

    Use of Class 1, 1M, 2, 2M, and 3R Lasers or Laser Systems

    Process

    07.07.018.008

    Ch. 16, Work Process G

    Use of Class 3B and Class 4 Lasers and Laser Systems

    Process

    07.07.018.009

    Ch. 16, Work Process H

    Process

    07.07.018.010

    Ch. 16, Work Process I

    Process

    I. Other References

    • American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z136.1, 2014 American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers
    • ANSI Z136.2, 2012 American National Standard for the Safe Use of Optical Fiber Communication Systems Utilizing Laser Diode and LED Sources
    • ANSI Z136.3, 2005 (or later revision), American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers in Health Care Facilities
    • ANSI Z136.4, 2010 (or current revision), Recommended Practice for Laser Safety Measurements for Hazard Evaluation
    • ANSI Z136.5, 2009 (or current revision), American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers in Educational Institutions
    • ANSI Z136.6, 2005 (or current revision), American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors
    • ANSI Z136.7, 2008 (or current revision), American National Standard for Testing and Labeling of Laser Protective Equipment
    • ANSI Z136.8, 2012, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers in Research, Development and Testing

    J. Contact Information

    Laser Safety Officer

    Radiation Protection Group

    EHS Division

    K. Revision History

    Date

    Revision

    By whom

    Revision Description

    Section(s) affected

    Change Type

    1/2/2012

    1

    K. Barat

    Rewrite for wiki

    All

    Minor

    4/1/2014

    1.1

    G. Toncheva

    Editorial changes

    All

    Minor

    4/15/2018

    1.2

    G. Toncheva

    Editorial changes: removed the AHD and replaced with WPC. Updated the roles and responsibilities.

    All

    Minor

    DOCUMENT INFORMATION

    Title:

    Laser Safety

    Document number

    07.07.018.000

    Revision number

    1.2

    Publication date:

    5/16/2018

    Effective date:

    5/16/2018

    Next review date:

    4/1/2021

    Policy Area:

    Industrial Hygiene and Safety

    RPM Section (home)

    ESH

    RPM Section (cross-reference)

    none

    Functional Division

    EHS

    Prior reference information (optional)

    PUB-3000 Chapter 16

    Source Requirements Documents

    • 10 CFR 851.23(a)(11), Safety and Health Standards
    • American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z136.1, 2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers

    Implementing Documents

    Document number

    PUB-3000 Reference

    Title

    Type

    07.07.018.001

    Chapter 16

    Program

    07.07.018.002

    Ch. 16, Work Process A

    Laser Use Work Process and Flowchart

    Process

    07.07.018.003

    Ch. 16, Work Process B

    Process

    07.07.018.004

    Ch. 16, Work Process C

    Process

    07.07.018.005

    Ch. 16, Work Process D

    Process

    07.07.018.006

    Ch. 16, Work Process E

    Process

    07.07.018.007

    Ch. 16, Work Process F

    Use of Class 1, 1M, 2, 2M, and 3R Lasers or Laser Systems

    Process

    07.07.018.008

    Ch. 16, Work Process G

    Use of Class 3B and Class 4 Lasers and Laser Systems

    Process

    07.07.018.009

    Ch. 16, Work Process H

    Process

    07.07.018.010

    Ch. 16, Work Process I

    Process

    Other References

    • American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z136.1, 2000 American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers
    • ANSI Z136.2, 2012 American National Standard for the Safe Use of Optical Fiber Communication Systems Utilizing Laser Diode and LED Sources
    • ANSI Z136.3, 2005 (or later revision), American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers in Health Care Facilities
    • ANSI Z136.4, 2010 (or current revision), Recommended Practice for Laser Safety Measurements for Hazard Evaluation
    • ANSI Z136.5, 2009 (or current revision), American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers in Educational Institutions
    • ANSI Z136.6, 2005 (or current revision), American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors
    • ANSI Z136.7, 2008 (or current revision), American National Standard for Testing and Labeling of Laser Protective Equipment
    • ANSI Z136.8, 2012, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers in Research, Development and Testing












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